The more specific a start-up's narrative is, the more likely it is to turn out to be wrong. Savvy entrepreneurs craft broad narratives instead.

McDonald, Rory and Robert Bremner. "When It's Time To Pivot." Harvard Business Review Sept-Oct. 2020: 101. Print.



A study on habit formation suggests that the average time for a new habit to form is 66 days, with a minimum of 21 days.

Jacobides, Michael G. and Martin Reeves. "Adapt Your Business to the New Reality." Harvard Business Review Sept-Oct. 2020: 76. Print.


If we behave unethically out of self-interest, we're often unaware that we're doing so - a phenomenon known as motivated blindness. For instance, we may claim that we contribute more to group tasks than we actually do.

Bazerman, Max H. "A New Model for Ethical Leadership." Harvard Business Review Sept-Oct. 2020: 91. Print.



Not seeing (or acknowledging) that anything needs transforming, and therefore not changing the way they operate-that is, staying on autopilot. This view may lead to ignoring the problem, throwing more money at the problem, using the same techniques to solve problems, and so on. This then maintains the status quo results (and potentially worse).

Spayd, Michael K and Michele Madore. Agile Transformation: Using the Integral Agile Transformation Framework to Think and Lead Differently. Addison-Wesley, 2020. Online